When discussing pruning, you, of course, need to address one species at a time. However, one thing that is pretty universal is that the moderately vigorous annual shoots are either entirely responsible for next years crop as with peaches, or for a three year cycling in and out of bearing wood as is often done with pears and apples. Even when you keep spurs on apples and pears for longer than that, fruiting wood renewal starts with such shoots, called pencils when in the context of pomes. With apples and pears, the shoots you keep are shorter than with peach trees though.
To give you an idea about managing peaches, it is possible to maintain a peach trunk with no permanent branches at all- this is more often done with dwarf apples (in a slightly different manner), but imagining peaches managed this way illustrates a lot of the idea behind managing peach trees in general. I've actually trained peaches with a central leader and three permanent scaffolds where the central leader is managed the way I will describe.
You let the trunk grow to the height you want it and remove all branches that form after their second year. New shoots grow from the trunk, you thin out excessively vigorous shoots, leave others that are about 12-24" long. Let each shoot grow 2 to 4 peaches and remove the spent shoots next spring, leaving new shoots for the subsequent crop.
With peach trees with permanent branches you manage them pretty much the way I described managing the "branchless" tree. Stick to new wood that starts immediately at the scaffold (all green wood that formed the previous year) and remove all 2 year wood. Anything that grows more than a couple of feet in a season is probably excessively vigorous to use and such shoots can be removed in mid summer instead of waiting till the following spring so the wood you plan to keep gets lots of light.
You are replacing all the budded wood in the tree on a 2 year cycle.