I believe wind chill is not a factor for trees as far as cold goes, but I think a strong wind can be, insofar as it dessicates (removes water) from the tree.
That’s not a big deal if the tree can replace the water, but if not, lacking water is a big stressor to the tree, assuming it doesn’t get bad enough for it to die. A tree under stress can make it more vulnerable to other things.
This dessication effect can become exacerbated in the winter, because in many areas the winter is a drier season, so not as much moisture in the soil. Also, the processes in the plant are greatly slowed due to dormancy, so it’s theoretically possible the wind could be taking water out of the tree faster than its roots can replace it even if there is adequate soil moisture.
I’m not an expert, this is just what my gardening podcast said when they dealt with the topic. It made sense to me, so I figured I would pass it on.