It’s going to vary from state to state.
In KY, the minimum acreage you could plant was 1 acre - they didn’t want to have to be policing tens of thousands of folks growing in their back yard.
You had to submit to a criminal background check before you were considered for a license to grow. I still have to do that, yearly, and apply for a license to store what we grew in 2019… or the authorities could theoretically imprison me and seize my farm for having 12K pounds of ‘marijuana’… with a THC level below 0.3%. You couldn’t ‘cop a buzz’ on it if you could smoke 30 pounds at a session.
We planted all-female clones of 8 different varieties, grown by another licensed grower. I would not mess with seed unless you’re doing an indoor grow of autoflower type to produce ‘smokable hemp’ - if that’s even legal in your state (it is in TN, but not in KY).
With seed, you have to rogue out and destroy any male seedlings ASAP.
Even with all female clones, we evidently had some that ‘hermed’… threw a male branch here and there… I never saw a male plant, and I walked those rows daily… but toward the end of harvest, we were finding some buds that contained seeds, and I’m still having to destroy ‘volunteer’ hemp plants coming up in my fields and around barns here.
So far as trying to ensure that your hemp doesn’t go ‘hot’…stupid federal regs require hemp THC levels to be below 0.3% ( a number some faceless bureaucrat pulled out of their @ss)…about all you can do is start pulling samples to check THC levels as soon as the plants start flowering, and test weekly to plot the point at which your plants are likely to go hot, so that you can plan harvest time. Good luck with that. Testing is expensive. THC levels can double in just a few days’ time. There are some ‘projected time tables’ for some of the more common varieties that can give you ballpark ideas about how long after flowering commences that they will likely be approaching the 0.3 THC limit… but they’re not all that reliable, as temperatures, rainfall/moisture levels, fertilization, pest/disease issues can all impact CBD & THC levels.
State of KY provided one official test per variety before you could begin harvest… but you had to wait 6 weeks to get a result to find out if your crop was compliant or ‘hot’… not helpful at all.
We had one variety that went ‘hot’… THC level was around 0.6%(CBD was around 12%)… ended up running the entire plants of that variety - stems, trunk, everything - through a chipper/grinder to ‘dilute’ the THC to compliant level, but that also cut the CBD level in half… and created a product that no processor would want to buy… processors don’t even want to bother with biomass with CBD level below 10%.
You can’t give it away to someone who doesn’t have a license to process, and no, you couldn’t write it off, and there’s no federal-subsidized crop insurance like for corn, soybeans, etc.
I suppose we ‘wrote off’ some of our loss… we were able to put tiller, transplanter, mulch/driptape layer, irrigation pump & filter, drying barn on a depreciation schedule, and showed a significant loss on our farm income tax filing for that year (we’re talking well over $100K…), but you don’t ‘get that money back’… just a reduction in what you end up having to pay to the federal government in income taxes.
I learned a lot about growing hemp that year. It was the hardest work I’ve ever done in my entire life. It was just one foot in front of the other, from daylight 'til after dark, every day, for more than an entire year… we worked in the greenhouses cloning plants, did all the soil prep, laid plastic mulch & drip-tape, irrigation lines & pressure regulators, pump/filter/fertigation, trouble-shot leaks in driptape, battled weeds in between rows, sprayed BT for caterpillars(walking with a backpack sprayer), harvested by hand, hauled to barn and hung to dry, cut 'em down and cut limbs off, then ‘bucked’ buds, and dumped into bulk grain bags for storage.