Problematic is that beta-cyclocitral links to the Lake Erie algal bloom, coal, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s.
Beta-Cyclocitral / Microcystis
K Tomita, M Hasegawa, S Arii, K Tsuji, B Bober and K Harada,
Environmental science and pollution research international, Jun 2016
The cyanobacterium Microcystis produces volatile organic compounds such as β-cyclocitral and 3-methyl-1-butanol. The lysis of cyanobacteria involving the blue color formation has been occasionally observed in a natural environment. In this study, we focused on the oxidation behavior of β-cyclocitral that contributed to the blue color formation in a natural environment and compared β-cyclocitral with a structurally related compound concerning its oxidation, acidification, and lytic behavior. The oxidation products of β-cyclocitral were identified by the addition of β-cyclocitral in water, in which 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-1-yl formate and 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone were structurally characterized. That is, β-cyclocitral was easily oxidized to produce the corresponding carboxylic acid and the enol ester in water without an oxidizing reagent, suggesting that this oxidation proceeded according to the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. The oxidation behavior of β-cyclocitral in a laboratory was different from that in the natural environment, in which 2,2,6- trimethylcyclohexanone was detected at the highest amount in the natural environment, whereas the highest amount in the laboratory was β-cyclocitric acid. A comparison of β-cyclocitral with structurally similar aldehydes concerning the lytic behavior of a Microcystis strain and the acidification process indicated that only β-cyclocitral was easily oxidized. Furthermore, it was found that a blue color formation occurred between pH 5.5 and 6.5, suggesting that chlorophyll a and β-carotene are unstable and decomposed, whereas phycocyanin was stable to some extent in this range. The obtained results of the characteristic oxidation behavior of β-cyclocitral would contribute to a better understanding of the cyanobacterial life cycle.
UK-China / Coal / Microcystis
Y Yuan, H Zhang and G Pan,
Water research, 2016 15 06
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increasingly occurred worldwide and pose serious threats to water environment safety. In this study, a compound flocculant (CFAL-Chitosan) was developed for HABs mitigation where chitosan was modified by coal fly ash leachate (CFAL). When using optimized dosage of CFAL-Chitosan flocculant, the zeta potential of Microcystis aeruginosa (M.A.) flocs stayed close to zero and algal removal efficiency plateaued over 90% in a wide dosage range from 3 to 6 mg L(-1). For chitosan without CFAL, removal efficiency peaked at 3 mg L(-1) with a maximum removal efficiency of 81%, which quickly decreased as the dosage increased (>3 mg L(-1)) due to the fast reversal of zeta potential. This indicated that CFAL-Chitosan could maintain a better removal efficiency over a wide dosage range as a result of improved charge neutralization compared with the chitosan only treatment. The flocs of CFAL-Chitosan were larger and denser than produced in the presence of chitosan without CFAL. However, excessive CFAL beyond the optimized dose inhibited M.A. removal due to hydrolysis and declining molecular weight of chitosan that weakened the bridging-netting properties, where surface charge reversal happened within a narrow dosage range and the removal-dosage curve became parabolic. The pH and metal residuals that were assumed to pose a threat to the aquatic environment were not significantly affected by adding optimized dosage of CFAL-Chitosan. The study provides a HABs control method using a cheap material of CFA. Further studies are needed to check the potential influence of leachable metals and persistent organic pollutants in CFA under a wide range of environmental condition.
J Liu, C Xu, S Zhang, H Li, K Chen, P Huang, Z Guo and L Xu,
Environmental toxicology, Jan 2018
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a cyanobacteria-derived heptapeptide that has been commonly characterized as a hepatotoxin. Although the liver is a primary organ in glucose homeostasis, the effect of MC-LR on glucose metabolism remains unclear. In this study, the human liver cell line HL7702 and ICR mice were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR for 24 h, and the proteins involved in insulin signaling were investigated. The results showed that MC-LR treatment induced the hyperphosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at several serine sites, S307, S323, S636/639, and S1101 in HL7702 cells, and S302, S318, S632/635, and S1097 in mice livers. In addition, the activation of S6K1 was demonstrated to play an important role in MC-LR-induced IRS1 hyperphosphorylation at several serine sites. Decreased levels of total IRS1 were observed in the mice livers, but there was no significant change in HL7702 cells. MC-LR also induced glycogen synthase (GS) hyperphosphorylation at S641 (inactivating GS) both in vitro and in vivo, even glycogen synthase kinase 3, a well-known GS kinase, was inactivated after MC-LR treatment. Moreover, MC-LR could block insulin-induced GS activation. In addition, glucose transport in liver cells was not impacted by MC-LR either with or without insulin stimulation. Our study implies that MC-LR can interfere with the actions of IRS1 and GS in insulin signaling and may have a toxic effect on glucose metabolism in the liver.
Glycogen synthase kinase is the aluminosilicate link to Alzheimer’s, the same point of entry (ethmoid sinus) as influenza viruses.
Apart from the algal bloom, it is unknown how the California fires will affect D. suzukii as it relates to the ab3 sensillum.