Since most of the taxpayer funding is no longer available, many US university plant breeding programs have moved to licensing models that generate revenue in order to survive.
I’m happy to pay a few extra dollars to these licensing programs for a better rootstock or better varieties of plants that I can buy.
Club apples are a new model. I don’t like it and I hope it fails. Fortunately, I have not tasted a club apple that I’m willing to pay a premium for.
If most consumers refuse to pay the premium price, the club apple idea will fail.