Borowinka (Duchess) vs Antonovka vs B.118 or B.490 ROOTSTOCKS

Does anyone have a decent link to a study or experience with the disease profile of either Borowinka or Antonovka or B.118 or B.490 ???

Trying to figure out the best of the best of a standard tree or close to standard.


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Is the closest i could find.

I am curious though. Why is MM111 not on the list?
It has bur knot issues. However when grafted low, this should not be a problem. And seems verry adaptabel/ressilient otherwise.

My one mature apple tree is on M111. Not a lot of data, but other than being slow to bear, it’s been a very low-maintenance tree.

Burr knots are what held me back from M111 I think Malling Merton has some new ones out though

i am not aware of any new apple tree’s from MM in the past 20 years. I think around 2000s they introduced MM116

B490 also seems to have some bur knots.

B118 is susceptible to Phytophthora according to.

Antonovka seems
moderately susceptible to fire blight and maby crown rot to.

In the end, there is no “best” or we don’t currently know enough to recognise it.

There is likekely a “best suited to your situation”
But for that we would need to know more about your climate and growing conditions! (soil, rain, temp, what diseases plague you?)

In general MM111 seems to me to be the best choice in most situations. But probably not all.

Another “pro” for MM111 is that it is used a lot over the past decades. Unlike some of the “newer” rootstocks it is verry “known” and “reliable”.

There is a decent chance we will discover new disease susceptibilitys for the newer rootstocks in the coming decade.


I have 60 years old and younger apple trees on antonovka . Good rootstock but You will need to wait long for first apples , and tree will grow veryy large ( a lot of pruning )


I do happen to have a 2019 graft to Antonovka that probably blooms in '22.
Red Fleshed apple.

36 months from graft.

Be interesting to see if B118 can beat that. So far no blooms in 2 years from B118 or G890. But next spring could change that.