Interstem experiments

Starting next spring, I want to start doing some experimental interstem grafting. Mostly for my own amusement, but if I get a good combination, great. I have a few questions.

  1. Most interstem apples I see have M111 root with a dwarfing interstem. Is there a huge benefit to using M111 over a seedling apple, whether Antonovka or generic?
  2. Are there patent issues? I assume the Malling rootstocks are way out of patent. What about Bud9 or the Geneva rootstocks? If I buy those to grow out for interstems is that an issue? Or is there a certain way I can legally use them, like buying the rootstock and using only the stem of the rootstock itself as the interstem?
  3. Is it better to try to graft all three parts at once, or graft the interstem to the rootstock, let it grow out, then graft the desired variety next season?

On item #2, you can legally propagate patented plant material for personal use, but you can’t share or sell it without permission (and most likely royalties).

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