Can grow all manor of kumquats in the ground here near Houston, TX. Supposedly more cold hardy than satsuma which IMHO is the most cold hardy of sweet citrus. Not more cold hardy in my experience.

Nordman seedless nagami kumquat. Sour seedless fruit IMHO without a lot of taste. Banked with bark for freeze and mature tree coming back from stump. Stump about 4 inches across on 7 YO stump in ground.

Changshou kumquat. Thought to be kumquat x mandarin hybrid. Makes large kumquat with thick sweet skin and sour pulp. Fruit often as big as a mandarin. Planted in ground this spring. Notice the leaves are shaped like mandarin leaves. Kumquats usually have long and thin leaves.

Marumi kumquat on flying dragon. Round sour kumquat. Just finished bloom. Planted this in the ground this spring after growing in pot for many years.

Nagami kumquat. Not popular around here because it is sour. Fruit is oval.

Meiwa kumquat however I don’t grow it. Round fruit with seeds and not a lot of pulp so it is sweet. The part of kumquat that is sweet is the skin. Juice on all is sour.

There are other kumquat like fruits I’ve grown but not any longer:

Limequat tastes neither like lime nor kumquat. 3 available: Eustis, Lakeland, and Tavares. Eustis is small and round, Lakeland is oval shaped like a nagami kumquat and Tavares is much bigger up to 3 inches long and 2 inches thick. Friends had mature trees of all 3 before snowmaggedon Houston February 2021 with low T of 10-14F. So I could get all the fruit I wanted every year. Didn’t get any beyond the first try.

Indio mandarinquat Large fruit with thin orange skin and lots of juicy pulp which is very sour. IMHO not edible out of hand but makes nice marmalade. An ingenious cross between a Nagami and a Dancy mandarin. Its large, bell shape and bright-orange peel make this tree very beautiful as well as practical. Indio mandarinquats are a sour variety and taste best in beverages or as a marmalade.

Yuzuquat Makes large fruit that is sour but not much flavor otherwise. Gave away my plant a long time ago. Supposedly cold hardy.

Unknown mandarinquat. A friend was always crossing citrus and asking me to grow out the seedlings. He made a cross of nagami kumquat and satsuma. It produced a fruit like indio mandarinquat but with yellow skin. Just as sour. After tasting the very sour fruit I never grew it.

Centennial variegated kumquat hybrid. Have tasted this and they are very sour. Variegated version of a Nagami Kumquat is an attractive finely textured tree with upright growth habit.
Variegated pale yellow and cream leaves are complemented by yellow and green striped fruit which become quite large and turn orange at maturity.

Calomondin. Much loved by Filipinos. Very sour. I made marmalade with it but didn’t like it. Also comes in variagated.

Meiwa x nagami or Nagel seedless kumquat. Houston area obscure hybrids making a sour seedless oval shaped fruit similar to nagami. Used to have a tree a long time ago. Used to be propagated.

Sunquat Discovered under a clementine tree near Houston it is believed to be a clementine x kumquat. Makes a mandarin sized huge yellow fruit. Very low flavor thick skinned and late season. Tastes like a low flavored sour kumquat. Sometimes called lemonquat.

For pictures of kumquat fruit: Kumquat - Citrus Trees For Sale / [Semi-Dwarf] / Multiple Varieties


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Nice write-up, thank you! I have a Nagami and we like it. I can only eat a few out of hand. My wife will sometimes chop up a bunch of Nagamis and some kiwis and put them together in a salad. The sweet/sour combination sets each other off very nicely for a good refreshing fruit salad.

Nice write up indeed. Not sure why I didn’t read this before. I just grafted many of the Kumquats/Kumquat hybrids you mentioned on my Meyer Lemon this year (link). I hear these are slow growers, but hopefully I get some fruit in a not-too-distant future

Didn’t see fukushu on your list. It was my favorite in California along with meiwa.

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Changshou = fukushu

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I have a satsuma in my zone 7 North Carolina location that I’ve overwintered without problems with minimal protection, placing some water buckets around it (the idea being that they’ll buffer night time temperatures as they freeze) and covering with blankets on nights when temperatures drop below 20 degrees. I grafted a satsuma this year that I’m hoping to overwinter with similar methods. Do you think that will work? Are there differences I’ll need to account for?


my Fukushu on flying dragon 10 months after T-bud graft starts to grow on rootstock of 2.75 years age


I have Meiwa kumquat, I was told by my ex-coworker that this variety is sweet. I gave away 2 Nagami kumquats to my brother, they are very sour, I don’t have space because I don’t eat them much.

@cousinfloyd, just to clarify - did you intend to type that you grafted a kumquat this year (rather than a second satsuma)?

Yes, a kumquat. Are they not at all similar to satsumas in cold hardiness?