Muscadine pest

This summer, my muscadine is infested with insects. Does anyone know what it is? How to prevent?

There are black spots on the back of the leaves.
Later, when you look carefully, you can see that the black spots form tiny insects moving.
The leaves are damaged by these insects.

The insects may not be causing the leaf discoloration–if that’s what you’re implying. The leaf disorder looks more fungal to me, black rot or maybe even a fungal trunk disease. Do you water from overhead?

Water only the roots. I saw the worms wriggling. These bad leaves are what I found after these insects. I don’t know if it’s caused by insects or bacteria.

Damage pattern is similar to that caused by leaf miners. The term leaf miners includes several species of insects.

Perhaps do research on grape+leaf+miners

It seems that there’s no way to avoid muscadine’s pests. We have to take medicine