Some Clarification with Scions, Grafting and Planting

So basically I read in the forum lately that.
It is better to plant weak rooted plants like PAWPAW and PERSIMMON in the spring once they are actively growing. Thoughts?

Storing Scions at 0 to -5C (32-23F) is ideal for long term storage. Meanwhile in a fridge is the usual advice. Thoughts?

My life story: Last year my scions sprouted too early and this year I got some valued persimmon wood from Cliff. I read persimmons tend to be hard to store until the plants leaf out AND my fridge only gets to 40F 5C. I have a lot on my plate this spring 80 - 100+ grafts to do of like 10 species. So this brings me to my final point today for clarification requesting.

What is the ideal or acceptable time frame to use the scion wood for grafting? I read some methods are fine to perform in deep winter like Bench grafts. If you know of a resource or would like to make a short layout clarifying when to graft certain species and when to use certain grafts for me such as this to keep it condensed for consolidation by richard… :melting_face:
-Bud, Whip, Veneer, Cleft : After growth or After buds swell
-Bench graft : in winter
-Persimmon, walnut, pawpaw: Late to sprout and graft
-Peach, plum, apple pear: Early pre growth of any grafting is fine.
-Mulberry, chestnut: respond well to summer grafting.
(These are just inaccurate examples, not actual experiences.)

Any Species that are outliers and since your on the topic what does well with summer grafting (I assume this is most what I am familiar with from tropics with trying to time the bud swell right before the second phase shoot growth).

Thanks in advance you fruit lovers!


Graft the plum, apple, pear now. Mulberry, peach etc wait until the rootstock leafs out. Spring grafts are Cleft, whip and tongue, bark etc. . Chip, tbud are summer grafts. If my spring grafts fail then i resort to summer grafts.


Pawpaw doesn’t grow at all while dormant, hence the warnings for planting at different times of the year.


I have regrafted failed spring grafts in the summer and the ones that were still viable did fine. I added an “L” to my label to indicate it was a late (2nd) graft so I would know. I think the ones that failed were not properly aligned, so I got a second chance. The ones that failed due to desiccation of course were no good.

I grafted one of @PomGranny apple scions onto a tree using a cleft graft in late summer when I found it in the bottom of my crisper. It didn’t have time to grow much but it grew a bit, put out leaves, and still seems to be ok.


sliced up 56 grafts today solid 6 hours of field grafting. 2 skazka grapes, 20 zucker maglio apples, 8 asian pear (4 dripping honey, 3 benito, 2 late korean), 20 something hybrid plums. Yesterday was another 20 bench grafts of schaffsnase apples and 3 hybrid cherry the rootstock are pushing growth. 1 pear with Korean giant…

Today I became a whip and tongue graft fan. At some point it just became easier than modified cleft. some were a bit ridiculous but I’ve seen worse grafts take before so, wait and see. I start doing the math now and I have like 150 more field grafts to do yet :melting_face:

6 hrs later

W&T got easy by the end of the day


The following optimal ambient temperatures seem to work well for me.
Try to plan outdoor grafting when theses optimum callusing temperatures are near to ensure a good percentage of viable grafts.
This last season I performed summer grafting of green peach scions which actually took better than trying to graft in the spring with dormant scions. Possibly two reasons for that was the summer offered warmer temperatures in my climate, and some of the peach scions that I received for spring grafting were already swelling when I grafted. The issue of swelling buds is avoided if you can obtain green scions and graft in summer around mid August.
Kent, wa
Nectarines/Peaches – 18-26 deg C. ( 64.4 to 78.8F)

Apricots/Cherries – 20 deg C. ( 68F)

Plums – 16 deg C. ( 60.8 F)

Apples/Pears – 13-18 deg C. ( 55.4 to 64.4F)

Walnuts – 27 deg C. (80.6 F)

Grapes – 21-24 deg C. ( 69.8 to 75.2 F).

Do not forget tissue damage for most temperate fruit will occur at temperatures over 30 deg C. (86 F)

Temperatures either side of the optimum will also work, but the percentage take will be reduced. See graph below for walnuts.

Callus graph showing optimal temperature range