Rootstock Graft Compatibility


I’m working on this, research is slow going and I don’t know when I will get the charts uploaded. I hope I’m not limited to a certain number of edits because I will be coming back and forth to this for a while I imagine. Anyone with “Yes this works” or “No this doesn’t work” can send me a message and I’ll include it in the references section for proper credit. I’m hoping to include specific variety names and their compatibility into the reference section.

Charts Outlining The Compatibility Of Scionwood & Rootstock

Here is an example of the chart, in case anyone has ideas on how to increase the efficiency of it. If I include the hybrids, it would be quite large. I don’t think there is any way to make the chart editable other than uploading it somewhere.

Common Names For Rootstock

  • Malus
    Malus angustifolia: Southern Crabapple
    Malus baccata: Siberian Crab Apple, Manchurian Crabapple
    Malus coronaria: Sweet Crab Apple
    Malus fusca: Oregon Crab Apple
    Malus honanensis: Honan Crabapple
    Malus hupehensis: Tea Crab Apple, Chinese Crab Apple
    Malus prunifolia: Plumleaf Crab Apple
    Malus pumila: Common Apple, Paradise Apple, Antonovka Apple, Bittenfelder Apple, Borowinka Common Apple, Red Fuji Apple
    Malus sargentii: Sargent’s Crabapple, Roselow Sargent’s Crab Apple
    Malus sylvestris: French Crab Apple, European Crab Apple
    Malus toringoides: Cutleaf Crab Apple
    Malus x ranetka: Ranetka Apple

  • Prunus
    Prunus americana: American Plum, Wild Plum
    Prunus angustifolia: Chickasaw Plum, Sand Plum, Sandhill Plum
    Prunus armeniaca: Apricot, Mandshurian Apricot
    Prunus avium: Alkavo Mazzard Cherry, Sweet Cherry, Wild Cherry
    Prunus besseyi: Western Sand Cherry
    Prunus caroliniana: Cherry Laurel, Wild Orange, Mock Orange, Carolina Laurelcherry
    Prunus cerasifera: Myrobalan 29C, Myrobalan Cherry Plum, Myrobalan P 1079, Myrobalan P 2980, Myrobalan P 3293, Myrobalan P 2175
    Prunus domestica: European Plum, Empyrean 2, PP-1, Tetra
    Prunus dulcis: Almond, Sweet Almond
    Prunus emarginata: Bitter Cherry
    Prunus insititia: St. Julien A, Pixy, Damson, Bullace Plum, Mirabelle, Empyrean 101, Adesoto 101, PM 44 AD, PM 95 AD, PM 101 AD, PM 105 AD, PM 137 AD, PM 140 AD, PM 150 AD, PAC 952
    Prunus japonica: Japanese Bush Cherry
    Prunus laurocerasus: Cherry Laurel
    Prunus maackii: Amur Chokecherry
    Prunus mahaleb: Mahaleb Cherry, Rock Cherry, St. Lucie Cherry
    Prunus maritima: Beach Plum
    Prunus mexicana: Big Tree Plum, Mexican Plum
    Prunus mume: Japanese Flowering Apricot, Japanese Apricot, Chinese Plum
    Prunus nigra: Bounty Plum
    Prunus padus: European Bird Cherry
    Prunus pensylvanica: Pin Cherry
    Prunus persica: Peach, Nectarine, Lovell, Nemaguard, Bailey, Controller 7 & 8, Guardian, Halford, KV 010-123, KV 010-127, Nemared, Siberian C, Benasque, Missour
    Prunus pumila: Eastern Sand Cherry, Sandcherry, Pumiselect
    Prunus salicina: Japanese Plum
    Prunus sargentii: Sargent Cherry, Sakura
    Prunus serotina: Black Cherry, Timber Cherry
    Prunus serrula: Tibetan Cherry
    Prunus serrulata : Japanese Flowering Cherry, Hill Cherry, Oriental Cherry, East Asian Cherry
    Prunus spinosa: Sloe, Blackthorn
    Prunus subhirtella: Winter Flowering Cherry, Higan Cherry, Spring Cherry, Rosebud Cherry, Weeping Higan Cherry
    Prunus tenella: Russian Almond
    Prunus tomentosa: Nanking Cherry
    Prunus triloba: Flowering Almond, Flowering Plum
    Prunus umbellata: Sloe, Wild Plum, Flatwoods Plum, Hog Plum
    Prunus virginiana: Choke Cherry, Schubert Chokecherry

  • Prunus Hybrids
    Prunus avium x Prunus pseudocerasus: Colt
    Prunus besseyi x Prunus salicina: Hiawatha
    (Prunus besseyi x Prunus salicina) x Prunus cerasifera: Evrica
    Prunus cerasifera x Prunus dulcis: Mirobac
    Prunus cerasifera x Prunus munsoniana: Marianna 26-24, Marianna 4001
    Prunus cerasifera x Prunus persica: Krymsk 86
    Prunus cerasifera x Prunus salicina: Myrobalan GF 3–1
    (Prunus cerasifera x Prunus salicina) x (Prunus domestica x Prunus persica): Ishtara Ferciana
    (Prunus cerasifera x Prunus salicina) x (Prunus cersifera x Prunus persica): Ishtara
    Prunus cerasifera x Prunus spinosa or Prunus domestica x Prunus spinosa: Mr.S. 2/5
    Prunus domestica x Prunus insititia: PAC 959
    Prunus domestica x Prunus spinosa: Damas 1869
    Prunus dulcis x Prunus cerasifera: PAC 941, Miral
    Prunus dulcis x Prunus persica: Bright’s Hybrid 4 & 5, Cornerstone, Paramount, Adafuel, Adarcias, GF 677, HxM4, Hansen 2168, Hansen 536, PAC 960, PAC 9501, PAC 9917–01,
    Prunus incana x Prunus tomentosa: Krymsk 2
    Prunus insititia x Prunus domestica: Julior
    Prunus mahaleb x Prunus avium: Maxma 14
    Prunus persica x Prunus davidiana: Cadaman, Barrier
    Prunus persica (Nemaguard) x (Prunus dulcis x Prunus blierianna): Atlas
    Prunus salicina x Prunus angustifolia: Bruce
    (Prunus salicina x Prunus cerasifera) x Prunus spinosa: Jaspi Fereley
    Prunus salicina x Prunus persica: Citation, Controller 5 & 9, K146-44
    Prunus salicina x Prunus spinosa: Jaspi
    Prunus tomentosa x Prunus cerasifera: Krymsk 1

  • Pyrus
    Pyrus betulifolia: Birch Leaf Pear
    Pyrus calleryana: Aristocrat Pear, Callery Pear
    Pyrus caucasica: Caucasian Pear
    Pyrus communis: Domestic Pear, Common Pear, European Pear, Bartlett Pear, Kirschensaller Pear
    Pyrus pyrifolia: Chinese Sand Pear, Sand Pear, Japanese Pear, Asian Pear, Oriental Pear, Chinese Pear
    Pyrus salicifolia: Willowleaf Pear
    Pyrus serrulata: Serrulata Pear
    Pyrus ussuriensis: Chinese Pear, Sand Pear, Harbin Pear, Ussurian Pear

  • Rootstock & Scionwood Scientific Name Lookup

References Marked With A * Can Be Found Below

  • S-0 Uncharted Compatibility:
    Prunus cerasifera x Prunus munsoniana (Marianna Plum Cuttings)
    Compatible with most apricots. Pecka and Bulida break at graft union.1
    Prunus cerasifera x Prunus munsoniana (Mariana 2624)
    There is considerable difference in the degree of compatibility of almond varieties on this rootstock and also their productivity. Also be aware of increased incidences of Union Mild Etch considered by some to be incompatibility; new research is pointing to excessive irrigation practices contributing to this problem.2
    Compatible: Aldrich, Carmel, Fritz, Mission, Neplus, Nonpareil Advantage, Padre, Peerless, Ruby, Sonora, Wood Colony
    Intermediate: Butte, Monterey, Winters
    Incompatible: Kapareil, Nonpareil, Solano
    Prunus dulcis x Prunus persica
    Incompatible with most apricots.1
    Prunus mirobalan x Prunus perica
    Miroper, was selected in 1978 year like a mirobalan x peach hybrid seedling from open pollinated mirobalan trees. It was studied under code name of C 8.
    Prunus persica: Good compatibility with peach cultivars. Low compatibility with nectarine cultivars. It was named in 2000 year.
    Prunus armeniaca: Incompatibility with congenital varieties. Good compatibility with non congenital varieties.
    Prunus domestica: Incompatible.
    Prunus amygdalus: Good compatibility.
    Prunus amygdalus: Good compatibility.
    Prunus salicina: Good compatibility.
    Prunus mirobalan x Prunus armeniaca
    Apricor, was selected in 1978 year like a mirobalan x apricot seedling from open pollinated mirabalan trees. It was studied under code name of Cs 2.3
    Prunus armeniaca: Good compatibility with all varieties.
    Prunus besseyi x Prunus americana
    (BxA)83/21, was selected in 1983 year like a seedling from open pollinated seeds of BxA, in its turn a Prunus besseyi x Prunus Americana hybrid.
    Prunus domestica: Good compatibility with all varieties.
    (BxA)83/44, has the same origin like (BxA)83/21.
    Prunus domestica: Incompatibility with Tuleu and Reine Claude groups. Good compatibility with all others cultivars (Valor, Italian, Stanley, etc.).3
    Prunus besseyi x Prunus cerasifera
    RoP88.06.003, was the result of an Adaptabil x Prunus cerasifera var. pisardii cross, made in 1988 year.
    Prunus domestica: Good compatibility with all varieties, cultivar. Centenar excepted.
    Prunus persica: Good compatibility.
    Prunus armeniaca: Incompatibility.
    Prunus amygdalus: Incompatibility.3

  • S-1 Prunus Domestica Compatibility With Apricot Varieties:
    Compatible with most apricots.1

  • S-2 Prunus Besseyi Compatibility With Japanese Plum Varieties:
    Compatible: Alderman, Toka, Superior, Kahinta, Waneta, Gracious5

  • S-3 Prunus Cerasifera Compatibility With Plum Varieties:
    This rootstock is not suitable for strongly growing plum cultivars. However, it is still recommended for trees with a medium growth vigour and for those planted on light soils.4
    Compatible: Beauty, Elephant Heart, Emerald Beaut, French Improved, Green Gage, Green Gage (Bavay’s), Imperial Epineuse, Italian, Late Santa Rosa, Mariposa, Methley, Nubiana, Persian Green Plum, Santa Rosa, Satsuma, Toka

  • S-4 Prunus Cerasifera Compatibility With Pluot Varieties:
    Compatible: Dapple Dandy, Emerald Drop, Flavor Finale, Flavor Grenade, Flavor King, Flavor Queen, Flavor Supreme, Flavorosa, Splash4

  • S-5 Prunus Cerasifera Compatibility With Interspecific Hybrid Varieties:
    Compatible: Flavor Delight Aprium, Flavorella Plumcot, Sweet Treat Pluerry4

  • S-6 Prunus Cerasifera Compatibility With Apricot Varieties:
    Compatible with most apricots; some incompatible cultivars; Ademir has variable compatibility.1
    Compatible: Blenheim (Royal), Canadian White Blenheim, Chinese (Mormon), Flora Gold, Gold Kist, Harcot, Katy, Moorpark, Nugget, Puget Gold, Royal Rosa, Tilton, Tomcot4

  • S-7 Prunus Armeniaca Seedling Compatibility With Apricot Varieties:
    Most are highly compatible.1

  • S-8 Prunus Dulcis Compatibility With Apricot Varieties:
    Incompatible with most apricots.1

  • S-9 Prunus Insititia Compatibility With Apricot Varieties:
    Compatible with most apricots.1

  • S-10 Prunus Mume Compatibility With Apricot Varieties:
    Compatible with ‘Bulida’ apricot.
    Limited use with replant problems; difficult to propagate.1

  • S-11 Prunus Persica Compatibility With Apricot Varieties:
    Compatible with most apricots.1

  • S-12 Prunus Tomentosa Compatibility With Plum Varieties:
    Prunus tomentosa is commonly regarded as a dwarf rootstock.7
    Compatible: Herman, Opal, Čačanska Rana, Čačanska Lepotica, Dąbrowicka Prune
    Nanking cherry is actually more closely related to plums than to true cherries. I’ve used it as a dwarfing rootstock for peaches and Japanese hybrid plums and it is quite dwarfing.6

  • S-13 Prunus Tomentosa Compatibility With Peach Varieties:
    The lowest survival rate of peach plants, or 66.7% at the age of 8 years after grafting, took place with the Hakuho trees grafted on the Nanking cherry (D) and only 17% of the total trees grafted grew healthy. On the other hand, all the Hakuto trees grafted on the Nanking cherry © survived and grew healthy. Extensive studies concerning peach trees grafted on Prunus Tomentosa rootstocks revealed that on some cultivars, the trees lost vigor and tree survival was low. Certain peach cultivars do not show any incompatibility with P. tomentosa rootstock. These cultivars should be used as interstock.8 9 10
    Compatible: Hikawa Hakuho, Hakuho, Akatsuki, Yoshihime, Masahime, Kawanakajima Hakuto

  • S-14 Prunus Japonica Compatibility With Peach Varieties:
    In the case of the 72 trees grafted on the Chinese bush cherry, only one plant died.10
    Compatible: Hakuho, Hakuto

  • S-15 Prunus Besseyi Compatibility With Peach Varieties:
    Adaptabil, was selected in 1983 year like a seedling from open pollinated seeds of Prunus besseyi. It was studied under code name of B 83/1. 83/5, has the same origin like Adaptabil. It is an advanced selection under test. Good compatibility with peach and nectarine cultivars. It was named in 2000 year.11

  • S-16 Prunus Besseyi Compatibility With Apricot Varieties:
    Incompatibility with congenital varieties. Good compatibility with non congenital varieties.11

  • S-17 Prunus Besseyi Compatibility With European Plum Varieties:
    Incompatibility with Tuleu and Reine Claude groups. Good compatibility with all others cultivars (Valor, Italian, Stanley, etc.).11

  • S-18 Prunus Virginiana Compatibility With Plum Varieties:
    Ten years ago I tried grafting cherry and plum to P. Virginiana demisa. The truth is that plum works better than cherry. One of my successful plums has been fruiting for several years and still pushing lots of growth. All grafting was performed in my wooded P. Virginiana lot consisting of what is thought of as sibling seedlings rather than an underground generated population consisting of clones.6

  • S-19 Prunus Padus Compatibility With Plum Varieties:
    When I started out these experiments my ending goal (since Padus is ferel in Fairbanks Alaska) was to find fruits that would graft to Prunus Padus. Of itself Padus being the close European synonym of our P. Virginiana ecotypes, also being graft compatible. For now padus and virginiana prove that it “is” possible “only” with plums.6

  • S-20 Prunus Mexicana Compatibility With Peach Varieties:
    If y’all are wanting a native plum to graft to, I would recommend Mexican Plum aka Big Tree Plum. It doesn’t have the habit of suckering. Anything prunus can be grafted to it. I grafted peach on top of a wild one in the woods and it took without a problem.12

  • S-21 Prunus Angustifolia Compatibility With Plum Varieties:
    Serve reasonably well as rootstocks for many domestic plum varieties - European and Japanese hybrids. These native species tend to be suckering types, so yes, you’d get larger fruits on the one stem that you grafted, but it would soon be surrounded by a thicket of suckers from the native rootstock.12

  • S-22 Prunus Americana Compatibility With Plum Varieties:
    Serve reasonably well as rootstocks for many domestic plum varieties - European and Japanese hybrids. These native species tend to be suckering types, so yes, you’d get larger fruits on the one stem that you grafted, but it would soon be surrounded by a thicket of suckers from the native rootstock.12

  • C-1 Prunus Avium Compatibility With Sweet Cherry Varieties:
    Compatible: Black Tartarian, Lambert, Lapins, Minnie Royal, Rainier, Royal Ann, Royal Lee, Royal Rainier, Stella, Sunburst, Sweetheart, Utah Giant, Van16

  • C-2 Prunus Avium Compatibility With Tart/Sour Cherry Varieties:
    Compatible: Early Richmond, English Morello, Montmorency16

  • C-3 Prunus Mahaleb Compatibility With Sweet Cherry Varieties:
    Compatible: Black Tartarian17

  • C-4 Prunus Mahaleb Compatibility With Tart/Sour Cherry Varieties:
    Compatible: Meteor, North Star17

  • C-5 Prunus Maackii Compatibility With Tart/Sour Cherry Varieties:
    Scientists in Russia assured Iezzoni that P. maackii had been tested and found graft-compatible with tart cherries.13
    Best I found was P. maackii but not advisable, not always compatible for the long run and the cherries are smaller.6
    Here in anchorage ak zone 4 I grafted black republican and somerset on14
    Prunus Maackii they are now around six years old the bark is copper colored and very thin.15

  • C-6 Prunus Serotina Compatibility With Cherry Varieties:
    My understanding is that P.serotina is not compatible with most fruiting cherry selections. Can’t direct you to any published document, but that’s what I’ve always been told.
    We grow Prunus Serotina and have grown Prunus Virginiana and attempted unsuccessfully to graft both. I tried sweet and sour cherry grafts. Unfortunately I’m unaware of any documentation on the subject.6

  • C-7 Prunus Virginiana Compatibility With Cherry Varieties:
    Virginiana grafts leafed out and died a short time later. They are incompatible rootstock for anything I have tried so far.
    I’ve heard some have had success w/P. virginiana, but not serotina.6

  • C-8 Prunus cerasifera cv ‘Adara’ Compatibility With Cherry Varieties:
    Adara or Puente, a myrobalan selection, was developed in UC Davis and researchers in Spain found out about its excellent graft compatibility with almost all sweet cherry cultivars while being graft compatible with Asian and European plums as well. It has been used as interstems to convert plum orchards into cherries or cherries into plums. All of the compatibility and incompatibility tests can be found in this scientific paper. 18

Descriptions Of Rootstock

  • Prunus americana (American plum) widely used as a rootstock for American or American-japanese hydrid plums. Wild species in North America. In NC-140 Trials: 2009 Prunus americana is a species native to North America from Saskatchewan to New Mexico, east to New hampshire and Florida. Some have tried it as a rootstock for peaches but have often reported low vigor and compatibility problems. The selection used in the 2009 NC-140 trial comes from Bailey Nursery in Minnesota, where it has been used successfully by fruit hobbyists. After 4 years in California, it is quite dwarfing and appears to be compatible with Redhaven peach. However, fruit size is somewhat small and the trees produce root suckers. Produces abundant red and white fruit; excellent fruit for wildlife; suitable for humans as well, especially good for jams, preserves, and jelly. Trees are small and graceful; beautiful fall color; fragrant white flowers bloom profusely. Many cultivated cultivars have been derived from this species. It forms an excellent stock upon which to graft the domestic plum. widely used as a rootstock for American or American-Japanese hybrid plums. Adapted to light soils.

  • Prunus armeniaca
    Apricot seedlings; Canino, Tilton, Royal/Blenheim, Khargie, Manicot (GF 1236), Canino, Haggith
    Well-drained soils, low temperature tolerant, frost hardy; good productivity, resistant to nematodes, doesn’t sucker
    Heavy, wet, alkaline or saline soils, excess vigor; delayed genetic weaknesses in selfed cultivars, nonprecocious, CLS-incompatible, susceptible to Armillaria, Pseudomonas

  • Prunus cerasifera, Prunus myrohalana
    Cherry plum, myrobalan seedling; Myrobalan B, GF-31, 2032; Myrobalan 29C; Ademir (OP seedling of Myrobalan)
    Physical ‘resistance’ to stemborer; wide soil adaptation; improve winter hardiness with high-budding; advance harvest; Ademir reduces vigor, adaptive to heavy and calcareous soils, resistant to iron chlorosis and root asphyxia. Low yield, nonuniform and nonvigorous growth, incompatibility, suckers, susceptible to Pseudomonas ssp.

  • Prunus cerasifera x Prunus munsoniana
    Wild-goose plum; GF 8-1, Marianna 2624
    Wide soil adaptation, vigorous and productive, limited interstock use for Myro root/ P. domestica trunk/high scion budding (virus-free); resistant to water-logging and pests; improved productivity; used on shallow and saline soils, resistant to Meloidogne incognita nematode; Armillaria tolerance. Limited compatibility, susceptible to Pseudomonas ssp. and Pratylenchus vu/nus.

  • Prunus cerasifera x Prunus salicina
    Myrobalan GF 31
    Imparts vigor and improves fruit quality and quantity; N. Italy and France. Compatibility variable.

  • Prunus domestica
    European plum, Green Gage, Reine Claude GF 1380, Arda, Bl-Cack, Bl-4 Bclosljiva, Torinel (Avifel), Brampton E.M., Julior, Prunier GF 43
    Good compatibility with some cultivars, vegetatively propagated, adjustable budding height; improve longevity and cropping; improve winter hardiness with high-budding; Torinel resistant to Meloidogyne nematodes and reduces vigor and fruitfulness, resistant to Verticillium. Heavy soils, water logging, suckers (except Torinel).

  • Prunus domestica, cerasifera or salicina x Prunus persica
    Ishtara (Ferciana), Citation ( -salicina X P. persica), Myran vigorous, tolerates Armillaria and Meloidogyne nematodes, intermediate tolerance to root asphyxia; compatible; precocious, high yielding, size controlling. Only slightly tolerant of heavy soils, susceptible to crown gall (Agrobacterium spp.).

  • Prunus insititia
    Damas GF 1869, Polizzo de Murcia, Perla, Buburuz, Albe Mici, Kozlienka, Pixy, Adesto 101 (OP seedling of Pollizo de Murcia
    High productivity and vigor, frost hardy, possible tolerance to Pseudomonas, wide soil adaptation; increases fruit color ( cv Kozlicnka); cv Fher. Bystercei reduces vigor and early decline while improving yield; Spain, Romania, Serbian Yugoslavia; Adesto reduces vigor with increased cropping efficiency and fruit size, tolerates heavy, calcareous wet soils and is resistant to Meloidogyne. Limited commercial usage; dormancy delay; harvest delay (cv Kozlienka); suckers.

  • Prunus mume
    Japanese apricot
    Low chilling, resistant to crown gall, Armillaria, nematode.
    Not widely tested.

  • Prunus persica
    Peach, Halford, Lovell, Golden Queen, Bailey, Siberian-C, Nemaguard, Nemared, GF-305, Elberta, Higarna, Rubira, Montclar
    Good vigor, good compatibility with local cultivars; some resistance to bacterial canker and Verticillium; Nemaguard & Nernared have root-knot nematode resistance; improved productivity; doesn’t sucker; Europe (N. Rhone especially), N. & S. America. Some incompatibility, slow vegetative growth, low productivity, heavy or alkaline soils, sensitive to crown-gall and Phytophthora.

  • Citation (P. salicina x P. persica) is a peach-plum hybrid rootstock that produces dwarf trees (8 to 12 ft) and is tolerant of wet soils. Citation is resistant to root-knot nematode but susceptible to crown gall and bacterial canker.

  • Colt (P. avium x P. pseudocerasus) Colt is tolerant of periodic high water tables, is less susceptible to Phytophthora cherry stem pitting and gophers than most other cherry rootstocks. However, in some instances it confers excessive vegetative vigor and lower cropping than Mahaleb and other semi-dwarfing rootstocks. Reduced cropping is most problematic in early years of orchard development.

  • Gisela 12

  • Gisela 6

  • Hansen 536 Peach/Almond Hybrid

  • Ishtara

  • Krymsk 5

  • Krymsk 6

  • Krymsk 86

  • Lovell (Prunus persica) is a peach rootstock that produces a standard size tree with early fruit set and consistent crop. It is compatible with most plum cultivars. Lovell does not tolerate heavy soils and is susceptibility to root-knot nematode, but is partly resistant to bacterial canker.

  • M-40

  • Mahaleb (P. mahaleb) produces a tree 75 to 80% the size of Mazzard and Colt rooted trees. As a result, cherry trees on on Mahaleb tend to bear more heavily than those on Mazzard and Colt, especially during the early orchard development years. Mahaleb is tolerant of drought and high levels of soil calcium carbonate (lime). However, Mahaleb is very susceptible to gopher damage and is more susceptible to Phytophthora than Mazzard or Colt.

  • Maxma 14 (P. mahaleb x P.avium) is precocious and semi-dwarfing, with high yields. Maxma 14 results in trees that are only ¾ the size of a tree grafted to Mahaleb, and bear fruit 4 to 5 years earlier. Maxma 14 is also tolerant of a range of soil types and environmental conditions. However, Maxma 14 does not perform well in high density plantings and requires proper management to ensure productivity.

  • Mazzard (Prunus avium) is compatible with many scion cultivars and produces good fruit quality with moderate inputs. Mazzard is also tolerant of a wide range of soil types and colder winter temperatures. However, Mazzard produces tall, vigorous trees that are difficult to access during pruning and harvest. Because of its vigor, trees on Mazzard take slightly longer to reach their full productivity than trees on Mahaleb and other semi-dwarfing rootstocks.

  • Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera ) Graft Compatibility: Apricot, Plum, Prune.
    Myrobalan is a highly vigorous seedling rootstock that is well suited for a wide range of soil types. It is usually considered a vigorous or semi-vigorous rootstock, producing a tree with a mature height of 16ft - 20ft. Trees on Myrobalan should become free-standing but may benefit from staking for the first few years in lighter soils and / or windy situations. Like most seedling rootstocks Myrobalan is not particularly precocious, and trees should start bearing after 4-5 years. Apricot can be grown on Myrobalan plum rootstocks, although weakness and breaking at the graft union has been reported after high winds. As a result of this problem Myrobalan rootstocks should only be used in very heavy or wet soils.

  • Myrobalan 29C (P. cerasifera) is compatible with most cultivars of plums and tolerates a wide range of soil types and climatic conditions. It produces a hardy, vigorous, long lived, standard size tree, but is prone to suckering.
    Almond, Apricot, Plum, “Prune” Marianna 2624 compatibility with Almond Varieties: There is considerable difference in the degree of compatibility of almond varieties on this rootstock and also their productivity. Also be aware of increased incidences of Union Mild Etch considered by some to be incompatibility; new research is pointing to excessive irrigation practices contributing to this problem. Compatible - Aldrich, Carmel, Fritz, Mission, Neplus, Nonpareil Advantage™, Padre, Peerless, Ruby, Sonora, Wood Colony Intermediate - Butte, Monterey, Winters Incompatible - Kapareil, Nonpareil, Solano
    Originated in Davis, California, by W.L. Howard, California Agr. Expt. Sta. Introduced in 1940. An Open-pollinated seedling Marianna; selected in 1926. Resistant to root-knot nematode; partially resistant to oak root fungus; resistant to prune brown-line, moderately resistant to Phytophthora crown. Trees grow vigorously; slightly dwarfing; tolerates wet soils; cultivar is propagated vegetatively by hardwood cuttings. The disadvantages of Marianna 2624 is it tends to lean, shallow roots the first few years, very susceptible to bacterial canker, incompatible with peaches, nectarines and some almond cultivars, suckers profusely, susceptible to crown gall, almonds subject to brown line disease and union mild etch.

  • Mariana 2624 (P. cerasifera x P. munsoniana) is compatible with most cultivars of plums and produces a semi-dwarf tree (10 to 15 ft). This rootstock is typically used in northern California because it tolerates wet, heavy soils. It acclimates well to a wide range of soil types and climatic conditions. It is resistant to oak root fungus, crown rot, crown gall, and root knot nematode.

  • Nemaguard (P. persica x P. davidiana) is a peach rootstock that produces a vigorous, productive tree with good fruit size and little to no suckering. It has good resistance to root-knot nematode, but is susceptible to bacterial canker and Armillaria. Nemaguard is compatible with most plum cultivars. Graft Compatibility: peach, nectarines, apricots, plums, prunes, almonds.
    Origin USDA in 1959. Selected from seedlings from a seedlot received in 1949 by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), which was labelled P. davidiana and was eventually released as ‘FV 234-1’ in 1959 (Brooks and Olmo, 1961). - Refer to link in DESCRIPTION field. Precocious. In NC-140 Trials: 1984, 2001. Main rootstock used in California because it is resistant to root-knot nematode and is compatible with peach, nectarine and plum. It makes a vigorous, productive tree with good fruit size. However, it does not tolerate waterlogged or calcareous soils and is susceptible to many soil pests including ring nematode, verticillium wilt, bacterial canker and armillaria.

  • Nemared (Sport of Nemaguard) Graft Compatibility: peach and nectarine and most plum varieties. Origin: USDA, released in 1983. Very similar to Nemaguard in most ways, except it has red leaves. Precocious. Not in NC-140 Trials. Very similar to Nemaguard in most ways, except it has red leaves.

  • Nickels Peach/Almond Hybrid

  • Performer

  • Viking (Complex Prunus hybrid of Prunus persica, P. dulcis, P. cerasifera, P. mume) good with peach, nectarine, almond. Inventors Chris, Gary, Grant Zaiger and Leith Gardner of Zaiger Genetics, USA. Complex Prunus hybrid that is reported to be 1/2 peach, 1/4 almond, 1/8 plum and 1/8 apricot – (Prunus persica, P. dulcis, P. cerasifera, P. mume). Originated in experimental orchard located near Modesto, Calif. as a first generation seedling chosen from a large group of first generation seedlings that were grown and maintained under close observation. The chosen seedling showed extra vigor, upright growth, large leaves with a very thrifty appearance. Precocious, productive, increases fruit size. In NC-140 Trials: 2009 A vigorous rootstock compatible with peach and nectarine that is one of the most resistant rootstocks to bacterial canker (Bacterial Canker Report 2006), even though it is not completely resistant to ring nematode. It is resistant to root-knot and partially resistant to lesion nematode (Nematode Table), similar to Nemaguard. On Dehydration… Trees on peach x almond hybrid rootstocks, including interspecifics, are very sensitive to dehydration. While planting, keep roots damp and irrigate after planting.

  • Rootstock Description References

Forum Topic Discussions

Growing Fruit
Callery pear as rootstock?
A. plum as a peach or cherry rootstock?
Rootstock for Apricot
Aronia as rootstock
Prunus tomentosa as Rootstock


Graft compatibility list

This is fantastic information! Thanks for writing this!
John S


It’s now a wiki so we can all edit and there is no limit.


Here’s my contribution. It’s a work in progress. Dax

Compatibility Among Peach or Nectarine/Plum(s)/Apricots/Pluots/Aprium/Pluerry: compiled notes in addition to (2) reference charts (see beneath.)

European to Asian plum = no

Asian to European is (most) will be successful. Figure that out. Additionally a (CRFG publication: California Rare Fruit Growers) states that the majority of members report incompatibility. I think it should be noted that other than the inland of California (“northern” Cali. about the middle of the state East to West, hilly mountainous country.) See chart… “inland” is referenced for several rootstock & scion combinations… the rest of the country should not have incompatibility problems. Here in IL I’ve grafted Asian plum to European most successfully.

American plum (Prunus americana) accepts: Asian plum; European plum to a degree (beware of delayed incompatibility symptoms discussed below & what to look for); Peach/Nectarine; Pluot aka Plumcot; Pluerry; Aprium; Apricot is 100% incompatible but hybrid plums are recommended to be grafted to American plum. I’m going to leap and say Aprium will graft successfully but also recommend to watch for signs of delayed incompatibility.

Japanese plum to Japanese plum or rootstocks: St Julien, Citation, Krymsk 1, Krymsk 86, Prunus americana, & Apricot.

Peach accepts European plums (chart says); pluots; Asian plums; Euro plums; Apricots are hit and miss.

Apricots should accept most all pluots very well; Japanese plums; European plum (Most not compatible.) Pluots make great interstem combinations between the Apricot wood and European plum scions. (See chart)

Raintree Nursery puts all their multi-plum grafts onto peach root.

Old Asian plum trees may have better acceptance to European plums because they are not as vigorous as younger trees. There within lies the possible compatibility when grafting European plums to Asian plums.

Myrobalan (all are seedlings) accept European plums and prunes. There is reported compatibility with apricots but unions may easily fail during early years after and/or later years.

Myrobalan 29-C (clonal rootstock) accepts all plums: Asian or European; all apricots; pluots aka plumcots; aprium; pluerry; peaches/nectarines not accepted on Myro 29C.

An additional reference from Thompson & Morgan shows Peaches, Plums, Apricots, & Nectarines as perfectly compatible to Myrobalan

Thompson & Morgan Rootstock Guide

ALL ROOTSTOCKS should have a smooth union w/ SCIONS but if swelling is observed, that shows a general issue of incompatibility among the two. Additionally, another general principle that should be observed: full-vigor seedling rootstocks on most all accounts will have less incompatibility with scions than dwarf-rootstocks or semi-dwarfing-rootstocks. This will apply across the board among all fruit trees.

Stone Fruit Compatibility


Here is an old link referring to compatability Compatibility grafting?. Thanks for using my Prunus besseyi experiment from 4 years ago!


I did one two years ago and so far it’s fine. Yakima (European) to Methley.


Edit: Thanks for sharing, Dan! Continue to monitor for delayed incompatibility, please

SECTION S-14 is a must read for everyone!



here’s my work on pears

Pyrus Communis graft compatible with all pears makes a tree 90-100% of standard for european pears and 30-40% of standard for asians.

Pyrus Calleryana graft compatible with all pears makes a tree 100-110% of standard for european pears and 1%-5% of standard for asians (asian pears are EXTREMELY dwarfed on this rootstock)

Pyrus Betulifolia graft compatible with all pears makes a tree 110-120% of standard for european pears and 80%-90% of standard for asians

Pyrus Ussuriensis graft compatible with all pears makes a tree 50-60% of standard for european pears and 70%-90% of standard for asians

Pyrus Pyrifolia graft compatible with all pears makes a tree 100% of standard for european pears and 100% of standard for asians

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) graft compatible with some euros and asian pears, makes a tree 1-5% of standard both asian pears and european pears are EXTREMELY dwarfed on this rootstock and may not be long term compatible.


Does anyone know the heritage of Tsu Li and Ya Li asian pears? They are absolute beasts on callery rootstock, at least 100% normal size.

Also, if someone can tell me of any cases of decline/incompatibility in any hybrid persimmons grafted to pure virginiania rootstock, I would be indebted.


I was just reading about this a little while a go. It’s behind a paywall. Sometimes you can request access to these articles / journals.

Decline of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) trees on Diospyros virginiana rootstocks

An over-view of cultivars, production, harvesting, and marketing

Rootstocks for the Oriental Persimmon

Do your Asian persimmons/Kaki graft-reject on D. virginiana or D. lotus rootstock?

Notes on Persimmons, Kakis, Date Plums, and Chapotes - Arnoldia

Kaki vs Lotus Rootstock for Fuyu Persimmon

Effects on growth of persimmon

Will these persimmon rootstocks make it?
Will these persimmon rootstocks make it?

Rootstock Supply

Just added C-8 for Adara Plum… complete with reference. Adara made it possible for me to graft a 150-n-1 stone fruit tree with all the major stone fruit species and intraspecifics on it, plus many wild species as well.


I found a nice exception to this. From my 150-n-1 tree, so far, after 8 years, all of the European plums grafted to Hollywood Plum have been long lasting and vigorous. Also the European plums have good compatibility with purple ornamental cherry plum, P. cerasifera.



You have 150 cultivars on one tree? That’s amazing. Of course I won’t ask the names of all of them, but how many pluots do you have on it? So, the others I guess are peaches, J and E plums, nects, sweet and tart cherries. Which of these does it have the most of?

Do you perchance have a pic of the tree? That would be something to see. If not, how big is it, and how old?

I transplanted a Am (wild) plum to our yard last year, and now it’s blooming. I’d like to graft on to it when it gets a bit more established.


Here’s how the tree was developed over several years:


That’s impressive, Joe. I can’t open the pics, (my wife has a FB account, but I’ve forgotten the password) but I read the story. It’s kinda hard to comprehend a tree with that many fruiting branches, unless it’s just a massive old tree. But still,150, wow.

Not that I keep track of such things, nor would I know where to look, but is that some kind of record of cultivars on one tree? Have you had any local news stories done about it?

You are a true Mad Sci, Joe, and I mean that in a good way…


Thanks! And as I always say “If someone tells you that you have grafted more than what your tree can take, stop talking to them. You don’t need that kind of negativity in your life!”

No local news about it. But I had local news on my 101-n-1 citrus tree.
Here’s the 130-n-1 Franken-Stone fruit tree (well it was, now it is 150).


Nice work Joe. I was actually able to see yer FB pics. It doesn’t look as big as I thought it would, but if I saw the ladder so I figured it’s quite tall. You have like the Tree of Life in your front yard…

And, you also have 101-n-1 citrus tree? Impressive.


This is not surprising since Hollywood is believed to be a hybrid P. cerasifera ‘Atropurpurea’ x P. salicina, and myrobalan (P. cerasifera) is a common rootstock for Euro plums. I would guess that other P. cerasifera x P. salicina hybrids like Lavina or Obilnaya can serve as understock or interstem for Euro plums as well.


Might it be worth breaking this reference up? Have one for Prunus, one for Pears/Apples/etc, and so on. This list could get really long.


And I have many experiences and references about citruses and avocados. I held off as I wish there’s a separate category for tropical and subtropicals.