This is a wiki page for how much to spray of various chemicals. Many labels are for commercial use and are in pounds per acre which is not very helpful for us home growers, and this list is an estimate on what rate to use if there is no per gallon rate on the label; do first read the product label to see if it has a good per gallon amount on it.
Before getting into our own collected wisdom, U KY Dry Pesticide Rates is a pdf with per gallon amounts for many powders.
Note also that these rates are for the common fruit trees such as apples, peaches, etc and not for berries and others. You may need to adjust accordingly.
Pretty much any horticultural oil - 1-2% which is from 2.5 Tbsp to 1/3 cup per gallon. Use 2% for dormant and 1-2% for growing season depending on pest and kind of oil.
Most oils can’t be sprayed above mid-90’s or below 40F weather, and don’t spray oil when you sprayed sulphur recently and can still smell it.
Every copper product is a bit different, they are all within a factor of two of one another though.
Kocide 3000 - dormant 2 Tbsp/gal; growing season 1tsp/gal (copper can be sensitive to some leaf tissues, check into it before spraying copper on a fully leafed-out tree)
Every sulphur product is somewhat different but like coppers they are all in a somewhat similar range for how much to use.
Don’t spray sulphur in the day or two after an oil application, unless it is a dormant spray.
Kumulus DF - 2-3Tbsp/gal
Bonide liquid sulphur - 3-5 Tbsp/gal
Plums and Pears dormant, 1/2c/gal
Apples dormant, 1/3c/gal
Apple growing, 1/4c/gal
Its fine to mix with oil but for dormant spray only
3 Tbsp per gallon
Nufilm-17 - 1/2 tsp per gallon
Don’t use Nufilm with Surround. Do use it with sulphur and copper if possible.
Pinene II - 1/2 tsp per gallon
2-3 cups per gallon. Use 3c/gal if the coat is thin or nonexistent and 2c if its decent. For mild stinkbug issues tank mix in 1 c/gal with some other spray.
Please edit the above!! Also if you use a different amount either widen the range or of the amount above seems off, we can discuss it. It is important to include the brand name as different formulations are very different (for example I noticed by Bonide Dipel was different than my Dipel DF).
I don’t believe that the more refined oils are dangerous on plants if plants are healthy until temps get well into the '90’s. I regularly use them when temps are in the high '80’s without harm. Here’s something from a Loveland label. Also their are forms of copper safe to use on even tender foliage.
SUPER 94 SPRAY OIL EPA REG. NO. 34704-464
This spray oil is a straight-cut narrow boiling range petroleum oil designed specifically for use on deciduous fruit trees.
Apply so as to give total coverage to all parts of tree. Thorough drenching of trunks, limbs, twigs and leaves is essential for maximum insect control.
This product may be used as a carrier for appropriate insecticides and fungicides which are registered for use on deciduous fruits and nuts and which can be applied to give a uniform spray. Consult your local Agricultural Extension Service.
DO NOT COMBINE WITH SULFUR SPRAYS AND DO NOT APPLY
spray oil within 30 days before or after an application of sulfur except in the Northwest (Oregon and Washington) where it may be used in combination on Pears as a Post Harvest (after all fruit is off the tree), Dormant and Delayed Dormant (before the scales slip, or at or prior to bud swell) treatment and on Apples prior to or up to the Delayed Dormant (½ inch green) period.
DO NOT MIX with insecticides or fungicides incompatible with oil. Consult your State Agricultural Extension Service for specific compatibilities.
DO NOT APPLY to trees weakened by disease, drought, drying winds, or high nitrogen applications.
DO NOT USE this product when temperatures are above 95o F.
Use only in spray machines with powerful positive agitation. Keep agitator running at all times during spray operations. This product is formulated as a “fast break” spray oil and will not stay in solution unless agitated constantly
A chart prepared by K Yoder and DG Pfieffer of VPI shows Imidan 70% WP at 1 Tablespoon per gallon or 3 oz in 25 gallon.
The product label for my state is for 2-5 pounds per acre for Apples. I spray 100 gal/acre on apples so Dr. Yoder’s rate translates into about .75 pounds/acre. That is a very low rate for my situation at 100 gal/acre
The same chart shows Captan 50% WP at 2 taplespoon per gallon or 1/2 pound/25 gallon. This rate translates into about 2 pounds/acre if you are spraying 100 gallons/acre. Again a very low rate at 100 gallons/acre.
Scott, I’m a little slow this week and didn’t really grasp what you meant by the wiki spray amounts concept. I will try to add a few other materials by the gallon measurements as we head into spray season. I accidentally disposed of a long list I’d built over the years and am going to have to do some new calculating this spring.
I guess not many members are using a wide range of commercial formulations. Myclobutanil packaged in water soluble bags to treat 200 gallons of water isn’t much use to an owner of a small orchard.
And maybe this is an impossible question for you, but if you switched to Brand X because Imidan was too toxic, do you think Brand X will work well for me down in Virginia with our warmer climate and longer bug season?
I’m using the pyrethroid Asana at most sites although I liked Imidan. The Imidan label says “not for residential use” which appears to be defined as spraying within 100 feet of a residence. Some of the orchards I manage begin closer to a home than that.
In general the use of organophosphates in NYS is frowned on by the NYDEC while the use of pyrethroids as a staple pesticide against spring insect pests is discouraged by Cornell so I’m a bit between a rock and a hard place. At least Asana is not very poisonous to mammals and there’s much less worry about dogs tracking it into homes than with Imidan. If Imidan is in a dry shaded place it stays active for years.
Asana does an adequate job against plum curculio and other damaging pests for me but it sometimes seems to cause outbreaks of mites and even whitefly by being too hard on beneficial predators.
I can use Avaunt at sites that are legally farms, which is much softer than Asana on beneficials (but also too soft on stink bugs), but its’ label says it can only be used for agricultural purposes, which means the production is somehow commercial.
Most home growers on this forum rely on either Surround or Triazicide to control their main insect pests. Triazicide is the only pyrethroid widely available to home growers that I know. It should be adequate if applied at the right time at the highest rates as long as it hasn’t been sitting in storage for too long- it has a very short shelf life. Just don’t be surprised if you get an outbreak of mites.
Alan makes a good point about choosing between Imidan or a pyrethroid.
Neonics are sometimes recommended as a alternative. Many formulations are effective against PC or stinkbugs, but not as hard on beneficials (except bees!) so they may not flair mites as bad as a pyrethroid. Many of these chemicals like Actura (Thiamethoxam) or Assail (Acetamiprid) have a Caution signal word but are labeled for “Agricultural Use Only”.
Some of the Neonics are available in a product registered for home owner use. Has anyone used any of the consumer grade Neonics?
Here is a link to a page that list a lot of consumer grade insecticides and their formulation:
I use the Assail but it isn’t real strong against curc. It is also not supposed to be so hard on bees.
I hear the home formula neonics are very pricey. Pyrethroids are cheap in comparison and none (neonics) get real high marks against PC. Olpea recommended one form that is supposed to be adequate, but I forget which one.
Stinkbugs have become an increasing issue that pushes me towards more pyrethroid use. I have more stinkbug and plantbug damage with Avaunt protected fruit than Asana. Fortunately green stink bugs are still more prevalent here than BMS- at least in the trees.
I use CuPRO 5000 Fungicide/Bactericide 3lb Dry Flowable Copper Hydroxide 61.3% . Which is not labeled for use on fruit trees but is a generic Kocide, only stronger. Kocide is 46.1% Copper Hydroxide. I’m not really sure of the amount to use? I have been using 1 to 1.5 Tbsp for dormant spray.
I also use Bonide’s Tree and Plant Guard for brown rot besides MFF. It is an all in one product, with insecticide and fungicide.
MFF and I think Indar too are Demethylation inhibitor fungicides and T&PG contains Quinone outside inhibitors. So using both attacks brown rot two different ways. This has worked extremely well so far, but I need a few more seasons to truly say this method is effective. So far it has been with no brown rot appearing at all. T&PG is the only consumer product containing these fungicides (pyraclostrobin and boscalid).
Once you get brown rot you’re going to have spores all over, so trying to keep that from happening by hitting it hard from the get go! MSU confirms it is common in my area.
One may want to use Chlorothalonil instead of copper for leaf curl. I think Opea does? This also attacks brown rot. All this copper is certainly bad for the environment, using Chlorothalonil which does break down might be a better approach. Not really sure, just throwing it out there.
One of our members has a dog that could have picked up copper from sprayings, so worth a mention.
Also to note one member said Chlorothalonil wasn’t working for leaf curl for him, but that might be because the consumer products are lower doses than commercial products. So maybe the consumer should stick with copper.
Just trying to put some info out there, the more we know, the better!